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Africa is Earth \’s second-largest and second-most populous continent , after Asia in both cases. At about Africa\’s population is the youngest amongst all the continents;   the median age in was Scholars have attributed this to different factors including geography, climate, tribalism ,  colonialism , the Cold War ,  neocolonialism , lack of democracy, and corruption. The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean to the west.
The continent includes Madagascar and various archipelagos. It contains 54 fully recognised sovereign states countries , eight territories and two de facto independent states with limited or no recognition. Algeria is Africa\’s largest country by area, and Nigeria is its largest by population. African nations cooperate through the establishment of the African Union , which is headquartered in Addis Ababa.
Africa straddles the equator and the prime meridian. It is the only continent to stretch from the northern temperate to southern temperate zones. Most of the continent lies in the tropics, except for a large part of Western Sahara , Algeria , Libya and Egypt , the northern tip of Mauritania , the entire territories of Morocco , Ceuta , Melilla , and Tunisia which in turn are located above the tropic of Cancer , in the northern temperate zone.
In the other extreme of the continent, southern Namibia , southern Botswana , great parts of South Africa , the entire territories of Lesotho and Eswatini and the southern tips of Mozambique and Madagascar are located below the tropic of Capricorn , in the southern temperate zone.
Africa is highly biodiverse ; it is the continent with the largest number of megafauna species, as it was least affected by the extinction of the Pleistocene megafauna. However, Africa also is heavily affected by a wide range of environmental issues , including desertification, deforestation, water scarcity , pollution and other issues.
These entrenched environmental concerns are expected to worsen as climate change impacts Africa. The history of Africa is long, complex, and has often been under-appreciated by the global historical community.
The earliest hominids and their ancestors have been dated to around 7 million years ago, including Sahelanthropus tchadensis , Australopithecus africanus , A. Following a subsequent long and complex history of civilizations , migration and trade, Africa hosts a large diversity of ethnicities , cultures and languages.
The last years have witnessed an increasing European influence on the continent. Starting in the 16th century, this was driven by trade, including the Trans-Atlantic slave trade , which created large African diaspora populations in the Americas. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, European nations colonized almost all of Africa , with the exception of Ethiopia and Liberia , though Ethiopia would later be invaded and occupied by Italy from to Afri was a Latin name used to refer to the inhabitants of then-known northern Africa to the west of the Nile river, and in its widest sense referred to all lands south of the Mediterranean Ancient Libya.
Under Roman rule, Carthage became the capital of the province it then named Africa Proconsularis , following its defeat of the Carthaginians in the Third Punic War in BC, which also included the coastal part of modern Libya.
The later Muslim region of Ifriqiya , following its conquest of the Byzantine Eastern Roman Empire\’s Exarchatus Africae , also preserved a form of the name. According to the Romans, Africa lies to the west of Egypt, while \”Asia\” was used to refer to Anatolia and lands to the east.
A definite line was drawn between the two continents by the geographer Ptolemy 85— AD , indicating Alexandria along the Prime Meridian and making the isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea the boundary between Asia and Africa. As Europeans came to understand the real extent of the continent, the idea of \”Africa\” expanded with their knowledge.
Africa is considered by most paleoanthropologists to be the oldest inhabited territory on Earth, with the Human species originating from the continent. Fossil remains of several species of early apelike humans thought to have evolved into modern man, such as Australopithecus afarensis radiometrically dated to approximately 3.
After the evolution of Homo sapiens approximately , to , years BP in Africa,     the continent was mainly populated by groups of hunter-gatherers. Other migrations of modern humans within the African continent have been dated to that time, with evidence of early human settlement found in Southern Africa, Southeast Africa, North Africa, and the Sahara.
The size of the Sahara has historically been extremely variable, with its area rapidly fluctuating and at times disappearing depending on global climatic conditions. Around BC, due to a tilt in the earth\’s orbit, the Sahara experienced a period of rapid desertification. A major climatic recession occurred, lessening the heavy and persistent rains in Central and Eastern Africa.
Since this time, dry conditions have prevailed in Eastern Africa and, increasingly during the last years, in Ethiopia. The domestication of cattle in Africa preceded agriculture and seems to have existed alongside hunter-gatherer cultures. It is speculated that by BC, cattle were domesticated in North Africa. Between 10, and 9, BC, pottery was independently invented in the region of Mali in the savannah of West Africa.
Later, gourds , watermelons , castor beans , and cotton were also collected. Its cultivation would gradually spread across Africa, before spreading to India around BC.
They also started making pottery and built stone settlements e. Fishing, using bone-tipped harpoons , became a major activity in the numerous streams and lakes formed from the increased rains. Between 9, and 5, BC, Niger—Congo speakers domesticated the oil palm and raffia palm.
Black-eyed peas and voandzeia African groundnuts , were domesticated, followed by okra and kola nuts. Since most of the plants grew in the forest, the Niger—Congo speakers invented polished stone axes for clearing forest. Around BC, the Saharan climate started to become drier at an exceedingly fast pace.
This, in turn, decreased the amount of land conducive to settlements and encouraged migrations of farming communities to the more tropical climate of West Africa. By the first millennium BC, ironworking had been introduced in Northern Africa. Around that time it also became established in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, either through independent invention there or diffusion from the north   and vanished under unknown circumstances around AD, having lasted approximately 2, years,  and by BC, metalworking began to become commonplace in West Africa.
Ironworking was fully established by roughly BC in many areas of East and West Africa, although other regions didn\’t begin ironworking until the early centuries AD. Copper objects from Egypt , North Africa, Nubia, and Ethiopia dating from around BC have been excavated in West Africa, suggesting that Trans-Saharan trade networks had been established by this date.
At about BC, the historical record opens in Northern Africa with the rise of literacy in the Pharaonic civilization of Ancient Egypt. An independent centre of civilization with trading links to Phoenicia was established by Phoenicians from Tyre on the north-west African coast at Carthage. European exploration of Africa began with Ancient Greeks and Romans. He founded Alexandria in Egypt, which would become the prosperous capital of the Ptolemaic dynasty after his death.
Following the conquest of North Africa\’s Mediterranean coastline by the Roman Empire , the area was integrated economically and culturally into the Roman system. Roman settlement occurred in modern Tunisia and elsewhere along the coast.
Christianity spread across these areas at an early date, from Judaea via Egypt and beyond the borders of the Roman world into Nubia;  by AD at the latest, it had become the state religion of the Aksumite Empire. Syro-Greek missionaries , who arrived by way of the Red Sea, were responsible for this theological development.
In a short while, the local Berber elite had been integrated into Muslim Arab tribes. Islamic North Africa had become diverse, and a hub for mystics, scholars, jurists, and philosophers. During the above-mentioned period, Islam spread to sub-Saharan Africa, mainly through trade routes and migration. About stone settlements litter the region in the former savannah of the Sahara. Its inhabitants fished and grew millet. Around BC the region became more desiccated and the settlements began to decline, most likely relocating to Koumbi Saleh.
Living structures were made of sun-dried mud. It was a highly centralized community. The Nok people produced lifelike representations in terracotta , including human heads and human figures, elephants, and other animals. By BC, and possibly earlier, they were smelting iron. By AD the Nok culture had vanished. Based on stylistic similarities with the Nok terracottas, the bronze figurines of the Yoruba kingdom of Ife and those of the Bini kingdom of Benin are suggested to be continuations of the traditions of the earlier Nok culture.
Pre-colonial Africa possessed perhaps as many as 10, different states and polities  characterized by many different sorts of political organization and rule. These included small family groups of hunter-gatherers such as the San people of southern Africa; larger, more structured groups such as the family clan groupings of the Bantu-speaking peoples of central, southern, and eastern Africa; heavily structured clan groups in the Horn of Africa ; the large Sahelian kingdoms ; and autonomous city-states and kingdoms such as those of the Akan ; Edo , Yoruba , and Igbo people in West Africa; and the Swahili coastal trading towns of Southeast Africa.
By the ninth century AD, a string of dynastic states, including the earliest Hausa states, stretched across the sub-Saharan savannah from the western regions to central Sudan. Ghana declined in the eleventh century, but was succeeded by the Mali Empire which consolidated much of western Sudan in the thirteenth century.
Kanem accepted Islam in the eleventh century. In the forested regions of the West African coast, independent kingdoms grew with little influence from the Muslim north. The Kingdom of Nri was established around the ninth century and was one of the first.
It is also one of the oldest kingdoms in present-day Nigeria and was ruled by the Eze Nri. The Nri kingdom is famous for its elaborate bronzes , found at the town of Igbo-Ukwu. The bronzes have been dated from as far back as the ninth century. The Kingdom of Ife , historically the first of these Yoruba city-states or kingdoms, established government under a priestly oba \’king\’ or \’ruler\’ in the Yoruba language , called the Ooni of Ife.
Ife was noted as a major religious and cultural centre in West Africa, and for its unique naturalistic tradition of bronze sculpture. The Ife model of government was adapted at the Oyo Empire , where its obas or kings, called the Alaafins of Oyo , once controlled a large number of other Yoruba and non-Yoruba city-states and kingdoms; the Fon Kingdom of Dahomey was one of the non-Yoruba domains under Oyo control.
The Almoravids were a Berber dynasty from the Sahara that spread over a wide area of northwestern Africa and the Iberian peninsula during the eleventh century. Their migration resulted in the fusion of the Arabs and Berbers, where the locals were Arabized ,  and Arab culture absorbed elements of the local culture, under the unifying framework of Islam.
Following the breakup of Mali, a local leader named Sonni Ali — founded the Songhai Empire in the region of middle Niger and the western Sudan and took control of the trans-Saharan trade. Sonni Ali seized Timbuktu in and Jenne in , building his regime on trade revenues and the cooperation of Muslim merchants. His successor Askia Mohammad I — made Islam the official religion, built mosques, and brought to Gao Muslim scholars, including al-Maghili d. Until the fifteenth century, these small states were on the periphery of the major Sudanic empires of the era, paying tribute to Songhai to the west and Kanem-Borno to the east.
Slavery had long been practiced in Africa. In West Africa, the decline of the Atlantic slave trade in the s caused dramatic economic shifts in local polities. The gradual decline of slave-trading, prompted by a lack of demand for slaves in the New World , increasing anti-slavery legislation in Europe and America, and the British Royal Navy\’s increasing presence off the West African coast, obliged African states to adopt new economies.
Between and , the British West Africa Squadron seized approximately 1, slave ships and freed , Africans who were aboard. Action was also taken against African leaders who refused to agree to British treaties to outlaw the trade, for example against \”the usurping King of Lagos \”, deposed in Anti-slavery treaties were signed with over 50 African rulers.
Asante and Dahomey concentrated on the development of \”legitimate commerce\” in the form of palm oil , cocoa , timber and gold, forming the bedrock of West Africa\’s modern export trade. The Oyo Empire, unable to adapt, collapsed into civil wars.
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Africa – Wikipedia.After Effects setup and installation
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The following sections describe fc Preferences chnge box and the various tasks that can be performed using this menu. To restore the default preference settings, press and hold the following keys while the application http://replace.me/16124.txt starting. Preferences, including keyboard shortcuts change language adobe after effects cc 2018 free workspaces, are stored as files in the following locations:.
It is recommended that you do not modify the files in this directory change language adobe after effects cc 2018 free use the Preferences dialog box to modify the preferences. For information on modifying keyboard shortcuts, see Modify keyboard shortcuts. For information on managing workspaces, see Workspaces and Panels.
See the following article to learn how to access hidden user files on Mac OS:. Path Point and Handle Size: Specifies size of Bezier direction handles and vertices for masks and shapes, direction handles for motion paths, and other similar controls. Show Tool Tips: After Effects user interface tips. Switches Страница Nested Comps: About precomposing and nesting. Use System Color Picker: Choose a color picker. For more information, see Http://replace.me/2886.txt layers and Precomposing, nesting, and pre-rendering.
Also, see Fast Previews CS6. The OptiX version number and change language adobe after effects cc 2018 free Copy button are available приведенная ссылка copy the general information at перейти top of the dialog box to the system clipboard.
Show Internal Wireframes: Shows bounding box wireframes for components of collapsed precompositions and per-character 3D text layers. Mute Audio When Preview is not Real-time: Choose whether to play audio ссылка previews when the frame rate is slower than realtime. When the frame rate is slower than realtime, audio will stutter to maintain sync. Aftet Path: Motion paths. Still Footage: Create layers from footage items or change layer source.
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Safe zones, grids, guides, and rulers. Color labels for layers, compositions, and footage items. Preview on an external video monitor. Cycle Mask Colors: Cycle through colors for mask paths. You can create a template with your preferred project settings such as color management and folder structure, and use it as a foundation for langauge new project that you create.
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For detailed information, see the Sync Settings адрес страницы. After Effects prompt you to migrate settings from a previous version if it finds a preference folder from a previous version and no preference folder for the current version. This occurs when you start After Effects for the first time and when you delete the entire preferences folder.
Reveal preferences. General preferences. Show Start Screen when Opening a Project: Select to display the Start screen dialog when you open an After Effects project this option is not enabled by default. You can see a list of projects on the screen.
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Previews preferences. Display preferences. Afrer preferences. Still Aodbe Create layers from footage items or change layer source Sequence Footage: Import a single adobe captivate widgets free image or a still-image sequence Automatic Footage Reloading: Footage that has erfects is automatically reloaded when switching back from another application.
Auto Reload: By default, footage other lnaguage image sequence is automatically reloaded. You can change this behavior by selecting All Footage Change language adobe after effects cc 2018 free to include image sequence footage as well or by selecting Off change language adobe after effects cc 2018 free turn off auto reloading of footage.
Interpret Afher Alpha As: Alpha channel cv premultiplied or straight Drag Import Multiple Items As: Import footage items by dragging There is a drop-down menu to choose drop-frame or non-drop-frame timecode for Indeterminate Media NTSC, which applies to imports like still image sequences in which timecode values are not present langugae are unknown.
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